Mychem

Notes, explanations and resources for KS3, GCSE and A level Students of chemistry

The industrial manufacture of chemicals

Enter your text here ... Introduction ​Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, a vast industry has developed which takes raw materials from the ground, the atmosphere , the biosphere and the oceans and processes them to make them into different materials.  The chemical industry throughout the world is responsible for the generat...
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Crude oil

Enter your text here ... Introduction  Pearson ​ Crude oil is an extremely valuable and increasingly scarce fossil fuel. It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. The composition of crude oil varies depending upon where in the world it comes from. Crude oil is the principal raw material for the huge petrochemical industry which produces fuels, ...
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Equilibria

Enter your text here ... Introduction  Many chemical reactions can be reversed .   When this happens we can describe a forward reaction and a back reaction. Sometimes the forward and back reaction take place at equal rates. When this happens an ​ Equilibrium ​ is established Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ...
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Rates of reaction

Introduction ​ How fast a chemical reaction happens is a very important consideration. If paint dries too quickly it will become impossible to apply.   If the fuel in a rocket burns too slowly - the rocket will not get off the ground. Rates of reaction always involves the measuring of the   time taken for a reaction to happen. E...
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Energetics

Enter your text here ... Introduction ​Every chemical reaction has an accompanying change in energy. Some reactions release energy to the surroundings and are known as Exothermic. Reactions which take in energy from their surroundings are known as Endothermic When a chemical reaction releases energy  in a useful form substance involv...
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Acids, Alkalis and Salts

Enter your text here ... Introduction  A lot of everyday substances including some foods contain Acids.   You can find alkalis amongst a number of  common cleaning products.  Acids are neutralised by alkalis to form ​ salts ​ and water. Here we consider the ways in which these reactions can be used to make useful ...
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Ethanol

Enter your text here ... Introduction  Ethanol is an organic molecule which has a variety of uses.  It is a good solvent and it burns cleanly so can be used as a fuel. Here we will consider two of the methods by which ethanol can be made and examine the advantages and disadvantages of each Enter your text here ... Enter your text her...
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The Alkenes

Enter your text here ... Introduction ​The Alkenes are another Homologous series of Hydrocarbons. They differ from the Alkanes because they contain in their molecules at least one double bond between two of the carbon atoms. Because of their double bonds, the alkenes are more reactive than the alkanes and thus they are useful for making n...
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Alkanes

With just one carbon atom in the molecule, methane is simplest Alkane. Enter your text here ... Introduction The Alkane series is a family of hydrocarbons.  The technical name for family is a homologous series The alkane molecules contain atoms of hydrogen and carbon only The general formula for the alkanes is C n H 2n+2 Enter y...
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Introduction

Enter your text here ... Introduction to organic chemistry  Organic chemistry is concerned with the compounds of the element carbon. Carbon atoms can form four covalent bonds with a range of other elements.  Carbon chains form longer molecules and branches create a greater complexity.  Atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen...
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Tests for ions and gases

Enter your text here ... Introduction Analytical chemistry involves the identification of chemical substances using a variety of methods. Although modern technology has enabled chemists to analyse and identify a huge range of substances very quickly and accurately some simple test tube reactions can still be quicker and cheaper to perform...
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Hydrogen and water

Enter your text here ... Introduction Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen burns vigorously in oxygen to release energy and produces only water as a waste product. This makes hydrogen an attractive fuel - although storage and transport are still problematic. Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ...
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Oxygen and oxides

Enter your text here ... Tab Title Oxygen is a key component of the atmosphere and is critical for the support of life. Its reactivity makes it essential for respiration and combustion reactions - both of which release energy. Oxides are formed when oxygen combines with other element. Much of Earth's crust (48.5% by mass)  is compose...
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Group 7 elements – chlorine, bromine and iodine

Enter your text here ... Introduction Group 17  ( used to be group 7) contains a  set of non-metals known collectively as The Halogens . Like many families, the members of Halogen family have a number of similarities to each other. However, they also have some very important differences. Enter your text here ... Enter your ...
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Group 1 Elements - lithium, sodium and potassium

Enter your text here ... Introduction ​A vertical column the periodic table is known as a group. Group 1 contains six very reactive metals.   You might handle lithium and possibly sodium in the laboratory . The other metals in the group are too reactive to handle in a school laboratory. Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ...
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The Periodic table

Enter your text here ... Introduction Tab Title The periodic table is a list of the known chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number.  It is a very useful tool to help with the understanding, explaining and predicting the behaviour and properties of the chemical elements. Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ... Enter your...
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RFM and molar volume of gases

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Electrolysis

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Metallic crystals

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Covalent substances

Enter your text here ... Introduction Specification 1 Specification 2 ​ Covalent substances form when atoms share electrons rather than transfer them. This happens when atoms of non- metals bond with other atoms of non-metals   Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ... Enter your text here ...
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