Acids, alkalis and salt preparation

 A lot of everyday substances including some foods contain Acids.

You can find alkalis amongst a number of common cleaning products.

Acids are neutralised by alkalis to form salts and water.

Here we consider the ways in which these reactions can be used to make useful products.

2.34 know the general rules for predicting the solubility of ionic compounds in water: *see table below
2.35 understand acids and bases in terms of proton transfer
2.36 understand that an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor
2.37 describe the reactions of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid with metals,
bases and metal carbonates (excluding the reactions between nitric acid and metals)
to form salts
2.38 know that metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia can act as bases, and that
alkalis are bases that are soluble in water
2.39 describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from
an insoluble reactant
2.40C describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt,
starting from an acid and alkali
2.41C describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt,
starting from two soluble reactants
2.42 practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals starting
from copper(II) oxide
2.43C practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry lead(II) sulfate

This video gives a good overview of the main trends in solubility of  the compounds which you will meet at GCSE. 

If you have not already done so you should learn the names and fomulae of the ions shown above and below: 

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The solubility table - you need to learn this.

common sodium, potassium and ammonium compounds are soluble
all nitrates are soluble
common chlorides are soluble, except those of silver and lead(II)
common sulfates are soluble, except for those of barium, calcium and lead(II)
common carbonates are insoluble, except for those of sodium, potassium and
ammonium
common hydroxides are insoluble except for those of sodium, potassium and
calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble).
 

This table is important to learn  - so that you can use it to predict what will happen when two solutions are mixed. Some examples are 

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