2.34 - 2.43 Acids, alkalis and salt preparation
2.34 Defining salts
Common "table" salt ( sodium chloride) is found dissolved in large quantities in seawater. Sodium Chloride is just one example of the many compounds which can be called salts. Most salts are crystalline ionic compounds
A salt is defined as :
A compound resulting from a chemical reaction of an acid, in which the acid's hydrogen ions are replaced by other (positive) ions .
Assumed background knowledge
2.34 Activity 1. The best solution?
- 2.34 know the general rules for predicting the solubility of ionic compounds in water
When two insoluble ions mix to form a salt, the salt forms as a precipitate.
2.34 Activity 2. Pretty precipitation
The video the first reaction shows nitrate reacting with potassium iodide solution - the result is a yellow precipitate of lead iodide. We can write the following equation:
2.34 Activity 3. Predicting precipitates
2.35 Activity 4. Neutralisation
- Bases and alkalis are both capable of neutralising acids. However they are not exactly the same thing. Explain.
- What is the name and formula of the anion ( negative ion) present in all the alkali In the examples considered in the video?
- How does the concentration of the anion mentioned in 2 affect the pH of the solution?
- When acid is added to alkali, which ions combine to make water?
- Why are neutralisation reactions useful?
Acids can be defined as substances which will donate protons ( hydrogen ions H+ )
Bases are defined as substances which will accept protons.
When an acid neutralizes a base, protons (H+ ions) are transferred from the acid to the base. This produces water and a salt.
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2.37 - 2.39 Activity 5. Reacting Acids
Watch the animation carefully and write word equations giving the names the reactants and products for the four reaction types shown:
2.39, 2.40, 2.42 Activity 6. Making Soluble Salts
- 2.39 describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an insoluble reactant
- 2.40C describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an acid and alkali
- 2.42 practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals starting from copper(II) oxide
Study the video and use it to construct a sequence of instructions to describe how to make a soluble salt :
- Add insoluble base to a volume of the acid (50cm3) in a beaker
- Titrate the solution with an indicator in to find the volume required for neutralisation
2.41, 2.43 Activity 7. Making Insoluble Salts
- 2.41C describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt, starting from two soluble reactants
- 2.43C practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry lead(II) sulfate
Watch the video then complete the missing word exercise below.
When an insoluble salt forms from two solutions by a ********** reaction the salt can be separated from the liquid by **********. This type of reaction is also known as a ********** reaction.
The solid salt remains as a ********** in the filter paper.
The residue should be cleaned by washing it with ********** water
It can then be dried by "patting" with dry filter paper or left out in the air to dry.
Missing words: distilled, filtration, precipitation, residue, double displacement
When an insoluble salt forms from two solutions by a precipitation reaction the salt can be separated from the liquid by filtration. This type of reaction is also known as a double displacement reaction.
The solid salt remains as a residue in the filter paper.
The residue should be cleaned by washing it with distilled water
It can then be dried by "patting" with dry filter paper or left out in the air to dry..
2.43 Activity 8. Faster filters
This animation shows some apparatus which can be used to speed up the process of filtration.
- Work your way through the animation carefully.
- Draw a fully labelled diagram of the apparatus.
- Use labels on your diagram to explain in words how this apparatus speeds up the filtration process.