1.37 - 1.39 Ionic bonding - transferring charge
1.37 Electron transfer
Electrostatic forces are responsible for holding together the atoms in all substances. These forces are known as bonds, chemical bonds.
Chemical bonds are set up when electrons are transferred or shared between atoms. In this section we consider Ionic bonds . These form when atoms of metals transfer electrons to atoms of non-metals. The metal atoms lose electrons and become positive ions. The non - metal atoms gain electrons and form negative ions.
Assumed background knowledge:
1.37 Activity 1. Achieving a full shell
- 1.37 understand how ions are formed by electron loss or gain
Watch the video closely pausing where instructed. Write down your answers to the following questions.
1.38 Activity 2. Know your ions.
- 1.38 know the charges of common ions listed
You will have noted from the video that metal atoms tend to lose the electrons in their outermost electrons and form positive ions. The charge of the ion formed is equal to the number of electrons lost.
Use these ideas and the periodic table given to complete the following exercise.
- Write out the symbols of the first 20 elements in order - as they appear on the periodic table.
- Add the group number to your periodic table.
- From the information given in the video, write down charges on the ions.
- See if you can work out the pattern and add it to your table.
1.39 Activity 3. Finding formulae
- 1.39 write formulae for compounds formed between the ions listed
Watch the video closely pausing where instructed. Use the information given to work out the correct formulae for the following compounds:
- lithium nitride
- potassium oxide
- zinc oxide
- silver chloride
1.3.9 A neat trick
A simple way to work out the formula of an ionic compound.
You can use this method to balance the charges and therefore work out the formula of any combination of positive and negative ions.
If the charge is 1- or 1+ we do not put the number 1 in the formula. For example : for sodium chloride we write NaCl rather than Na1Cl1
If the charges are 2+ and 2- ( as in magnesium and oxygen) , the crossover method would give us Mg2O2 but we simplify this and write it as MgO.
1.3.9 Activity 4. Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic ions are ions which are made up of more than one atom . Each of these ions can exist as a single particle. Use the key and the formulae to match the images below to the formulae
1.3.9 Activity 4. Polyatomic formulae
When writing formula involving polyatomic ions you need to be careful to use round brackets appropriately. The video here explains why.
Watch the video carefully and use it to note down the formulae of the following compounds :
** Check your answers by rolling your cursor over the relevant name.